Trying to design a random item chart has led me into the catacombs of Wikipedia where I found wonders! Behold, the puzzle jug:
which will spill its bounty all over you if you don't know how to drink from it. And the marvellous fuddling cups:
which you have to drink all at once. Granted, these are novelties probably not worth much in a campaign except local color, but their cousin is even more interesting. This is a cross section of a Pythagoras cup. Also known as the greedy cup, if it is filled to the top of the central chamber it can be used normally, but filled above that and it all empties out the bottom. Surely that is worthy of a dungeon puzzle requiring a certain amount of liquid to be moved from one place to another.
Here it is in action: